This article examines the various types of Socialism. They exist across the political spectrum from extreme left wing to extreme right wing. In other words they exist in the most liberal to the most conservative individuals, groups and organizations.
Right Wing Type of Socialism
The right wing or the conservative individuals, groups and organizations demonstrate an extreme anti-socialist view of socialism. They vehemently express outrage at socialism. They attack socialism as something that is extremely destructive to man, societies and countries.
The term right wing is derived from the National Assembly in France (1789-1791), where the nobles sat to the president’s right and the commons to the left.
The term left wing is derived from the National Assembly in France (1789-1791, where the commons sat to the presidents left and the nobles to the right.
It has been found that the right wing employs a tremendous amount of socialism in their political economic operations as well. They can be as socialistic as communism in their most extreme forms. This extreme form is Fascism or when the few rich and powerful of a nation control and operate the government. They will not admit to any forms of socialism. They will not be responsible for any socialism in their operations. They will assume their socialisms are a part of capitalism. They don’t care how they get their wealth as long as they can accumulate huge amounts of wealth. They do this without proper or equal exchange for it, in the forms of self created commodities, trades, goods and services. They attack left wing forms of socialism. They attack forms of socialism that enhances the productive abilities of the Producers, the laborers and workers. Any form of socialism, that enhances the right wings’ ability to redistribute money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power into their hands, they will support. However they will never call it socialism.
The Right Wing plants a deep hatred of socialism into the individuals of a society. They use this planted hatred to control the individuals. They will attack forms of socialism that benefit the vast majority of citizens. They will not address their types of socialism as socialism. By not addressing their forms of socialism as socialism, they can generate citizen agreement for government programs that reward wealthy non-producers and counter-producers.
They control the opinion of the citizens. They use the control of the citizens to gain control of and operate governments. Once in control of governments they set up and operate government social programs that redistribute the money, value, energy, wealth, capital, power and prosperity of a nation into their hands.
In a previous article titled; Capitalist Socialist Economics in http://youcreatemoney.com, I have listed the types of socialisms that enhance the abilities of the wealthy non-producers and counter-producers to concentrate the money, value, energy, wealth, capital, power and prosperity of a nation into their hands. These socialisms are classified as Right Wing Socialisms.
When these socialisms concentrate the money, value, energy, wealth, capital, power and prosperity into the hands of a few, the money and energy velocities of a society or nation slows. When money and energy velocity of a society or nation slows value, wealth, capital, power and prosperity is destroyed.
Commodities, trades, goods and services depend on the speed of money and energy flow in a society for their value. As money and energy velocity increases the value of commodities, trades, goods and services increase. As money and energy velocity decreases the value of commodities, trades, goods and services decreases.
Wealth and capital depend on the speed of money and energy flow in a society or nation. The more velocity there is in the money and energy of a society the more wealth and capital will be generated by the Producers. As money and energy velocities decrease the less wealth and capital will be generated by the Producers.
Prosperity also depends on money and energy flow of a society. The faster the money changes hands the greater the prosperity. The faster the energy of a society flows the greater the prosperity of a society.
The power of an organization, society, and nation depends on money and energy velocity. Power is derived directly through the creation of money and energy. The faster money and energy flows through a society or nation the more power that society or nation has. When money is concentrated into the hands of a few rich and powerful individuals the power of the society and nation is destroyed.
Right wing socialisms destroy money velocity and energy flows. They destroy the energy, wealth, capital and power of a nation. They cause prosperities to recede into recessions and depressions.
These Right Wing Social programs include:
- Low or no taxes for the rich and powerful.
- They have set up the Federal Reserve to be used to expand the money supply. Through the expansion of the money supply they can transfer tremendous amounts of money, value, energy, wealth, capital, power and prosperity away from the Producers. They transfer it into their hands and bank accounts. This action destroys prosperity for the vast majority of citizens. It causes inflation.
Other Right Wing Social programs include:
- Excessive military spending;
- Conducting wars without exhausting all resources in the quest to prevent war;
- Corporate welfare;
- Agricultural welfare;
- Bailouts to the counter-producer banking system;
- Bailouts to the counter-producer wall street system;
- Monopolizing the media;
- Monopolizing energy systems;
- A monopolized Medical system;
- Monopolies, privately owned and operated;
- Socializing the losses and privatizing the profits of corporations;
- No bid government contracts;
- Allowing corporations rights of citizens;
- FDIC insurance for the Banking industry;
- Government insurance for the Nuclear industry;
- Welfare for Corporations to move to foreign countries;
There are many forms of Right Wing socialisms. One would think there could not be any Right Wing socialisms or conservative socialisms because of the way these people attack socialism. But, these forms of socialism exist. The Right Wing, also the conservatives, has used Right Wing socialisms to redistribute vast amounts of money, value, energy, wealth, capital, power and prosperity from the producers. They have used these forms of socialism to place this money, value, energy, wealth, capital, power and prosperity into their hands. They have destroyed much prosperity throughout history.
Left Wing Types of Socialism
I have called the following types of socialism left wing socialism because they have been viewed as left wing in the past. They have also been viewed as left wing by the right wing political system. In reality they are both Left Wing and Right Wing forms of Socialism. We have Producers in both the Right Wing and Left Wing political economic systems. These social programs enhance the abilities of all Producers regardless of which wing they are classified, Right (Nobles) or Left (Commons).
In a previous article titled, Capitalist Socialist Economics in http://youcreatemoney.com, I have listed the types of socialisms that enhance the abilities of the Producers. These socialisms give Producers a foundation on which to create money, value, energy, wealth, capital, power and prosperity.
Producers can produce more abundantly when they are:
- well educated,
- have clean drinking water,
- sanitary waste management,
- honest banking,
- a Constant Money Supply,
- an Open Market,
- a Policing service that backs them when they protest against the counter-producers,
- the correct size military industrial complex,
- war only as the last resort;
- other forms of transportation systems free from monopolies;
- have flood control projects,
- hydroelectric projects,
- large irrigation projects,
- health care systems that covers all citizens,
- retirement systems.
Left wing socialisms increase money velocity and energy flows. These are the types of socialisms that enhance the abilities of the Producers. They enhance the abilities of the producing workers and laborers. They aid in the creation of money, value, energy, wealth, capital, power and prosperity of a nation. They cause prosperities to expand into even greater prosperities.
There are also left wing types of socialism that reward non-production. These programs like the Right Wing Socialist programs are destructive to money velocity and energy flows. These include;
- excess welfare payments
- Government ownership of all production and distribution systems of a society or nation.
- Paying people based on need instead of based on production of commodities, trades, goods and services.
The Six Types of Socialism
The following types of socialism are an expansion of the six types of socialism listed in the article 3.0 Socialism in http://yourcreatemoney.com.
The six types of socialism are:
1. Socialism can be a theory or system of the ownership and operation of the means of production and distribution by society or the community rather than by private individuals, with all members of society or the community sharing in the work and the products. (Webster’s New Twentieth Century Dictionary unabridged)
In this type of Socialism the society, community or nation owns and operates the means of production and distribution. The individual members of the society, community or nation share in the work and labor. They share in the money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power based upon their needs. An example of this type of socialism is Communism, as it is currently practiced.
The Communists plant a deep hatred of capitalism into the individuals of a society. They use this planted hatred to control the individuals. They will attack all forms of capitalism. This includes the forms that benefit the vast majority of citizens and the forms that concentrate the wealth of a nation into the hands of a few rich and powerful individuals.
Fascism also tends to operate in this manner. Government is controlled and operated by the fascists to gain control of all production and distributions systems of the society or nation. In this type of socialism the non-producers and counter-produces are rewarded at the expense of the Producers. The destructive type of Capitalism, where the money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power is concentrated into the hands of few is operated in this manner.
Both the extreme left wing Communism and the extreme right wing Fascism are operated under this type of socialism. Communism directly takes over the government. Those in power concentrate all money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power into their hands.
Those in power in Fascism and the destructive form of capitalism set themselves up as a step removed from government. They set up government as a separate entity from themselves. However they use the money, energy, wealth, capital and power of government to concentrate all money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power of a nation into their hands.
The end result is very much the same in both extremes of right wing and left wing. The result is all money, value, energy, wealth, capital, power and prosperity flows into the hands of those in power. Both extremes, right wing and left wing socialism, have destroyed much prosperity on the planet throughout history.
2. Socialism can be a community of individuals working together during the process of creating prosperity through production. Co-operatives and employee owned enterprises are examples of communities of individual Producers working together during the process of creating prosperity through work and labor. These forms or organizations, when employed during the production of commodities, trades, goods and services, are among the most successful in creating money, value, energy, wealth, capital, power and prosperity for a community or group of Producers. The article 3.7 Private Forms of Socialism in http://youcreatemoney.com covers in detail private forms of socialism.
3. Socialism is the government or a community owning and controlling the production organizations. The first type of socialism is complete government control and ownership of production organizations throughout the whole nation or community.
This, Type Three, type of socialism is Government owning and controlling specific production areas. This type of socialism enhances the abilities of the Producers to create money, value, energy, wealth, capital, power and prosperity. These areas include education, some health care and retirement systems. More government owned and controlled production areas include public roads, mass transportation, airports, harbors, bridges, hydroelectric power, dams and water distribution systems. They also include interstate highway systems, parks, forest lands and grazing lands. Also included in this type of socialism are flood control projects, policing, the military industrial complex, and many, many more programs and projects.
4. Socialism is Government interfering with the Market. Government interfering with the Market is destructive to the individuals, families, organizations, societies and nations. This usually tends toward Capital Destroying Socialism. This is Governments interfering with the Market directly or indirectly through monopolies.
Monopolies are an example of government allowing a market to be controlled. Here the government is indirectly interfering with the market by not maintaining it open to all on equal terms. By allowing monopolies to exist, governments interfere with the Market indirectly and covertly. This indirect and covert interference is done by private non-producing and counter-producing individuals and organizations who have taken over the control and operations of the government.
These individuals and organizations take over and operate the Government. They use the power of the government to establish monopolies. They use the control of the power of the government to not enforce anti-monopoly laws. These controlling individuals and organizations are the beneficiaries of the monopolies. They control the Market covertly through controlling the operations of the government.
Direct interference of the Market by the government is when government programs are set up to alter market prices.
Before I continue with examples of government programs that alter Market prices, I want to emphasize how governments come to set up such programs.
Governments develop programs that alter Market prices by attempting to help a specific area that is in an economic decline. Other ways governments develop programs that alter Market prices are when non-producing and counter-producing individuals of the political-economic system gain control of the government. With this control of the government they set up programs that alter Market prices for their benefit.
Governments don’t sit there all by themselves dreaming up these programs. There are ALWAYS individuals either behind the scenes or out front who are the thrusts or forces behind all government programs. Governments don’t exist without individuals operating them. Governments are purposefully directed action entities. They are not static. Purposefully directed actions are placed into Governments by individuals who operate them. Purposefully directed actions are also placed into Governments by the individual citizens the Government represents in its operations.
All government programs have interested individuals who strive for the creation of each specific program that is created by a government. The programs include all Producer enhancing programs, all Right Wing enhancing programs and all Left Wing enhancing programs.
When people say the GOVERNMENT is the cause of “IT,” meaning the problem or the solution; they are leaving out the real responsible entities here. The real responsible entities are the individuals behind the inception of the programs. Making all “Government” responsible is a generalization. Individuals are always the cause of “IT,” the problem or the solution. It is the individual, who in some capacity is purposefully controlling and operating part of the government or who has in the past purposefully controlled and operated part of the government, who is responsible.
I will take this information on who is responsible and apply it to Governments that directly interfere with Markets.
There have been Government Social Programs set up to benefit producing enterprises when there have been real hardships. There have also been Government Social Programs set up to benefit non-producing and counter-producing enterprises and individuals who don’t have real hardships.
When there are real hardships one could argue that a one time help or rescue is justified. This is found in Agriculture. Farmers were given government subsidies when economic hardships occurred. This gradually evolved into paying farmers to not produce. This causes prices on the Market to rise.
Example: Dairy farmers were given a base price for a gallon of milk. This base price or “floor” was established by the government. When Producers are given higher prices for their products than the Open Market would establish, they use this over payment to bid up the input costs of their operations. In short order they will find themselves in the same condition economically as they were before they received the economic aid. This is because they have used the extra income to bid up the input costs of the operation.
This becomes a vicious circle where everyone loses. The individuals receiving the government handout lose because they use the new money to bid up their operating costs. They are back where they started from, asking for more aid. The Producers or tax payers, who pay for the government handout, lose their money to the people receiving the money. The Producers or tax payers lose a second time because now they have to pay higher prices for commodities, trades, good, services.
Examples of Government programs that interfere with Market pricing are Agricultural (welfare) Subsidization, Corporate (welfare) Subsidization, and excess Military Industrial Complex. When individuals are given money without an exchange for it, they use it to bid up the prices of commodities, trades, goods and services currently on the Market. When prices are bid up on the market everyone pays more for their needed and wanted commodities, trades, goods and services.
5. Socialism is government regulations placed on the economic system beyond the Axioms of Economics. The only laws that should be placed on the economic system are the Axioms of Economics. Reward the Producers and only the Producers, maintain the Market as an Open Market (open to all on equal terms) and maintain a Constant Money Supply are the basic laws of Economics. Any regulations, placed on the economic system outside of the Axioms of Economics, tend to penalize the Producers (laborers and workers) and reward the non-producers and counter-producers.
6. Socialism is any Government financed programs directed and controlled by a Government. These are all the programs legislated into existence by any and all Governments. Some of these programs are Capital Producing programs and some are Capital Destroying programs.
The Capital Producing social programs have been listed earlier in this article and in a previous article Capitalist Socialist Economics in http://youcreatemoney.com. These social programs have built a foundation on which Capital Producing Capitalism can prosper. They reward Producers. They aid the Producers in creating money, value, energy, wealth, capital, power and prosperity.
The Capital Destroying programs have also been listed earlier in this article and in the Capitalist Socialist Economics article. They are social programs that benefit the Right Wing. They reward the wealthy non-producers and the counter-producers. They destroy money, value, energy, wealth, capital, power and prosperity.
There are also Capital Destroying programs that benefit the Left Wing.
- excess welfare payments
- Government ownership of all production and distribution systems of a society or nation.
- Paying people based on need instead of based on production of commodities, trades, goods and services.
These programs also destroy money, value, energy, wealth, capital, power and prosperity.
An important point to make here is: Producers, laborers and workers, exist in both the Left Wing and the Right Wing sections of a society. Producers exist in the Commons section of a society and in the Nobles section of a society. Non-producers and counter-producers also exist in both the Commons and the Nobles sections of a society. It is always important that the Producers in either section of a society are rewarded in full for their creation of money, value, energy, wealth, capital, power and prosperity. It is also very important that non-producers and counter-producers in either section of a society are not rewarded for their non-production or counter-production.
In this article, Types of Socialism, we have Right Wing and Left Wing socialisms. There are social programs that reward production and Producers. There are social programs that reward non-producers and counter-producers. Socialisms exist across the political spectrum. It is important to eliminate any social programs that harm production and Producers, laborers and workers. It is important to create and maintain social programs that enhance the abilities of the Producers to create money, value, energy, wealth, capital, power and prosperity.
Producer Rewarded Open Market Economic
The Science of Economics
By RP Obrigewitsch
February 25, 2014
There are many types of Socialism. Government Socialism is the most common type of Socialism.
Government Socialism includes Capital Destroying Socialist and Capital Producing Socialist programs. These programs have been set up and operated by and through governments.
In the “Capitalist Socialist Economics” article there is a partial list of Capital Destroying Socialist programs operated through governments. They include the Federal Reserve, excess military spending, corporate welfare, agricultural welfare, government sanctioned monopolies, socializing the losses and privatizing the profits of corporations, no bid government contracts, FDIC insurance for Banking, government insurance for the nuclear energy industry, etc. These are the socialist programs that need to be removed from government operations. They aid the Capital Destroying Capitalist in redistributing and concentrating the wealth of a nation into the hands of a few rich and powerful individuals. They aid in rewarding non-production and counter-production.
Socialism is found as a key in enabling Capital Destroying Capitalism. Capital Destroying Capitalists are among the most vehement opponents of the practice of Government Socialism that enhances and rewards Producers and productivity.
Next to the Communist Socialists, Capital Destroying Capitalism has gained the most economically from the practice of Government Socialism. However, their economic gains have led to the economic destruction of the Producers in societies and nations. Ultimately, their economic gains have led to the destruction of their own societies and nations. They will not admit they use Government Socialism to carry out their agenda of redistributing and concentrating the wealth of a nation into their hands.
When people think of Capitalism, they view Capitalism as a system where the money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power are concentrated into the hands of a few rich and powerful individuals. This is Capital Destroying Capitalism. This system of Capitalism rewards non-production and counter-production. It is more exposed or open to view in third world countries. It operates less obviously in technologically advanced countries.
Government Socialism supported and created by the Capital Destroying Capitalists is destructive to the individuals, families, organizations, societies, nations, mankind and environments in which it is operating. This form of Government Socialism has aided the Capital Destroying Capitalists in America. It has led to the American Revolution, Slavery, and the Civil War, the Great the Depression and the Great Recession of 2008. It has led to both World Wars.
Fascism is an extremely heavy handed form of Capital Destroying Capitalism that applies strongly enforced programs of counter-productive Government Socialism to gain economic advantages. Fascism is used by the rich and powerful counter-producers to concentrate the wealth and power of a nation into their hands.
Also, in the “Capitalist Socialist Economics” article there is a partial description of Capital Producing Socialist programs operated through governments. These are the socialist programs that need to remain under government operations. These programs include education, roads, highways, bridges, harbors, flood control, large irrigation projects, hydro-electric projects, Social Security, health care, policing, fire control, mass transit, drinking water treatment, waste water treatment, etc. They aid the Capital Producing Capitalist in creating money, value, energy, wealth, capital, power and prosperity. They aid in rewarding Production and Producers. They give a solid foundation on which Producers can build prosperity for themselves and their nations…
Government Socialism supported and created by the Capital Producing Capitalists is constructive to the individuals, families, organizations, societies, nations, mankind and environments in which it is operating. This form of Government Socialism has aided the Capital Producing Capitalists in creating money, value, energy, wealth, capital, power and prosperity. All money, value, energy, wealth, capital, power and prosperity are created by the Producers. Capital Producing Socialist programs operated through Government Socialism enhances the abilities of the Producers to create prosperity.
Producer Rewarded Open Market Economics
The Science of Economics
By RP Obrigewitsch
January 6, 2014
Revised November 11,2013
This is the sixth set of Axioms in the Axioms of Economics. There are two sections of Axioms included in this set. The Title of this set is Ownership. The first section includes the Axioms covering Ownership. The second section includes the Axioms covering Producers; the Use of Their Money and Production.
We are going into the subject of Ownership. The subject of Ownership will be expanded upon. There is far more to the subject of ownership than what is commonly practiced today.
Ownership; is the act, state or right of possessing something. (New Oxford American Dictionary)
I will start with background information which will lead up to and into the expanded technology of Ownership.
We have discussed Producers producing commodities, trades, goods and services. Producers produce these commodities, trades, goods and services by first creating energy. Producers convert this energy into commodities, trades, goods and services as they create them.
The interface area; is an area of one’s Individual Space overlapped with the production space of the Physical Universe. This overlapping takes place during production.
The interface area; also, is an area of one’s Individual Space overlapped with the production spaces of other Individuals Spaces and the Physical Universe Space. This overlapping takes place during group production.
In most cases Producers really own what they create. In economics the counter-producers assert themselves in claiming Ownership where group production takes place. They conveniently claim Ownership to the Organization even though the Organization was and is created by individuals who work and labor together in the Organization. Individuals operate in their Individual Spaces while interfacing with other Individuals’ Spaces and the Organization Space, simultaneously, while creating products.
Individuals also operate in their Individual Space while interfacing with other Individual Spaces and the Organization Space, simultaneously, while creating an Organization. Counter-producers don’t respect the spaces of other people. Their solution is to lay claim to the products and Organizations created by the Producers.
While exchanging the commodities, trades, goods or services on the Open Market the individual also is interfacing with other individual spaces through the Market Space.
Using Individual Spaces
Individuals use their space daily and almost continuously. They use it when they think. They use it when they solve problems. They use it when they communicate through the use of speech and when they communicate via writing. They use it at work while performing their jobs. Artists use it. Musician use it. Everyone uses it continuously. They use it for the most minor detail to the most major detail during production and during living.
During the process of production the individual’s space is used to visualize the commodity, trade, good or service. The individual visualizes the commodity, trade, good or service in their space. They use self generated energy to transfer the visualization into the Physical Universe. This is done by the individual interfacing with the physical universe. When there is more than one Producer involved in the production process, each individual interfaces with each other and with the physical universe.
I attended an Art Museum a few weeks ago. As I viewed the very complex and intricate displays in paintings, sculptures, etc; I was astounded at how the artists used their spaces in creating these complex creations. Every detail displayed in the art work was previously visualized in the artist’s space. These visualizations were created in the artist’s space before he replicated them in the Physical Universe. The Physical Universe, common to us all, is where the artist shares the final product with his/her fellows.
Space and Ownership
Where does this space relate to the concept of Ownership? Of course it is self evident that everything an individual creates, while interfacing with the physical universe space, the individual owns. We could also say; everything the individual creates in the physical universe, while interfacing with the Physical Universe, the individual also owns. When the individual creates with a group of other individuals the individual owns that part of what he produces in the final product. This is how ownership works into all of what I have been writing here.
The subject of ownership can be fairly abstract. By abstract we mean existing in thought or as an idea but not having a physical universe or concrete existence. The reason Ownership can be abstract is that Ownership involves many spaces. Ownership involves the interfacing of many spaces during the process of production.
Interfacing is when each individual, via his space, interacts with another or other individuals spaces.
Interfacing is when an individual interacts with the Physical Universe and with other individuals’ spaces simultaneously.
Each individual can interact, via his space, with many other individuals’ spaces and the Physical Universe at the same time. This is production taking place in an Organization with more than one individual Producer. A football team has 11 individuals plus coaches, officials and fans interfacing spaces with each other simultaneously along with interfacing with the Physical Universe. This phenomenon is found in Concert Bands, in Orchestras, and in every organization on the planet.
Each individual owns his/her Individual Space. Not only does each individual own their Individual Space, they own all that is created in that Space. They also own all they have created in the Physical Universe while interfacing with the Physical Universe and other individuals’ spaces.
Most, if not all Production involves group participation. Producers carry out a coordinated managed effort in working and laboring together during the process of creating commodities, traders, goods and services. The Producers interface spaces during this process. All Producers working and laboring in each specific organization create with a coordinated effort. They create in their own space first. Then they replicate their part of the commodity, trade, good or service in the physical universe space of the organization.
We have as many spaces merged, interacting and interfaced into an organization as there are individuals present working and laboring in that organization. Examples of this are all manufacturing plants, hospitals, all governmental organizations, all companies and corporations with more than one individual producing.
Interfacing Puts the Organization There
There is much more to ownership than is traditionally perceived. When an Organization gets purchased and sold off for profit. This selling off for profit causes the dismantling of the Organization. This activity of dismantling a working and producing organization, results in the destruction of space for all individuals producing in the organization. The individuals, interfacing their spaces in the organization, are creating the organization continuously day after day. They are putting the organization there. Without the individuals producing, while interfacing within the space of the Organization, the Organization would not exist.
When another individual claims Ownership of an Organization he is taking all that was and is being created by Producers working and laboring in that Organization. He is taking the organization space they are interfacing with during production. He is destroying their production space. When he takes the space of an Organization he is stealing the money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power created and being created by the Producers.
There is far more space destroyed than the space that was the Organization. All the individual interfacing spaces are dismantled and destroyed as well. This not only stops individuals from producing it steals their future. It steals their future production of money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power. This is destructive to the individual, family, organization, society, nation and mankind.
What an Organization Includes
A Company, Corporation or Organization is more than the Physical Universe entity. The Company, Corporation or Organization is composed of the Physical Universe entity along with the parts of each producing individual’s space. The producing individual has his space interfacing with the organization. Each individual also interfaces with each other individuals’ space when working together in creating a commodity, trade, good or service.
An Organization includes the Physical Universe land, space, energy and matter. Matter is composed of all the buildings, machines, utilities and communications system. An Organization also includes parts of the Producing individuals’ spaces, the part that interfaces with the organization during the process of production.
An Organization is created by the interaction of interfacing spaces. These interacting interfacing spaces belong to the Producers producing in the organization. The counter-producer by destroying an organization would be destroying the money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power creating ability of the Producers. He also would be taking money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power away from the Producers with no exchange for it. This activity is commonly found in the (Capital Destroying) Capitalist Economic System. This activity is common to Fascist and Communist economic systems.
One individual can’t truly own an Organization unless he is the only individual present in the Organization. The Producers own the Organization; they have created the Organization while interfacing their spaces with the Organization.
Stockholders can’t own an Organization: They didn’t create it! Stockholders can only loan money to an Organization.
The Producers are the creators of the Organization.
Each Producer has an Individual Space and uses this space when creating the production of commodities, trades, goods and services.
An Organization is composed of interfacing individual spaces.
An Organization exists exclusively from the existence of the spaces of the individuals interfacing in that Organization.
All producing individuals hold Ownership in an Organization by holding ownership in their space where it interfaces with the Organization.
Here is an example where a super-Producer left an Organization taking his space with him. The Organization nearly collapsed. The super-Producer had been in that Organization for many years. Over those many years, the Organization leaders placed angry hostile people in key positions. The leaders believed the Organization was thriving with angry, hostile people holding key positions. In reality these angry, hostile people were counter-producers. The Super-Producer held the Organization together and made it thrive despite the counter-production put forth by the angry, hostile people. After the super-Producer left and pulled his space out of the interface with the Organization, the angry hostile counter-producers took the Organization to near collapse. Within a few months there were major changes in the leading staff. The Organization went from prosperity to near collapse after the super Producer left. A counter-production thrust swept through the Organization and almost wiped it out.
This is an example of how real individual spaces can be in an organization. When a very vital individuals’ space is removed from an organization it has a tremendous negative impact on the organization. This is also true when a super Producers joins and organization. The organization goes through a period of revitalization and prosperity.
The view that Ownership is by one person or by the stockholders is a very short sighted view. This is the view of the greedy counter-producer. This is the view of a counter-producer who would take a company, dismantle it and sell off the parts for a huge, out-exchange profit. When he carries out this out-exchange dismantling he would be destroying the Organization of interfacing spaces.
Ownership; is the act, state or right of possessing something. (New Oxford American Dictionary)
141. A Producer owns that which has been produced or created by that Producer.
142. Producers have the full right to 100 percent of their production.
143. The Producers who produce the organization own the organization.
144. A Producer owns that percentage of an organization he has produced.
145. All expansion in an organization belongs to those Producers who created the expansion.
146. Ownership with production activity does receive reward. The production of the owner is what is rewarded.
147. Ownership with non-production activity does not receive reward, only production receives reward.
148. Ownership with counter-production activity does not receive reward, only production receives reward.
149. An owner who is producing should be rewarded for his production. The owner should not be rewarded for his ownership under any circumstances.
150. An individual should not be rewarded for having money or ownership. The individual has received the reward for production and that was the money. This rewarding an individual for having money or ownership is the action of rewarding someone for being rewarded.
151. Ownership in itself is reward for production.
152. A Producer owns the value, energy, wealth, capital and power he creates.
153. Holding land or space out of production is counter to the prosperity of the individual, family, society, nation and mankind.
154. A Producer has the right to produce on land or space owned by another individual or individuals who are not using the space or land for production. There would have to be an agreed upon exchange between both parties.
155. The Producers are the creators of the existence of the Physical Organization.
156. Each Producer has an Individual Space and uses this Space when creating commodities, trades, goods and services.
157. An Organization is composed of interacting interfacing Individual Spaces.
158. An Organization exists exclusively from the existence of the Individual Spaces of the individuals interfacing in that Organization.
159. All producing individuals hold Ownership in an Organization by holding ownership in their Space where it interfaces with the physical universe space of the Organization.
Producers; the Use of Their Money and Production
160. Producers have the full right to use their money however they choose in a prosperity thrust.
161. Producers do not have the right to use their production or money in a destructive thrust for this action moves the individual, family, organization, society, nation and mankind toward an economic decline.
162. Producers use money units to capture the value, wealth, energy, capital and power they create through the production of goods and services.
163. Producers transfer the value, wealth, energy, capital and power into money units when they market their commodities, trades, goods and services on the Open Market.
Producer Rewarded Open Market Economics
The Science of Economics
By RP Obrigewitsch
March 28, 2013
Revised November 17, 2013
In the previous article we started to deal with the Capital Destroying Class of Capitalism. We discussed the fact, earlier, that there are two classifications of Capitalism. There is the prosperity creating classification and there is the prosperity destroying classification. The prosperity creating classification is Capital Producing Economics. Producer Rewarded Open Market Economics is a Capital Producing Economics System. Capital Producing Capitalism is a Capital Producing Economics System.
The prosperity destroying classification is Capital Destroying Economics. Capital Destroying Capitalism is in the Capital Destroying Economic System. Communism and Fascism are also in the Capital Destroying Economic System.
Capital as used in economics means; the amount of money or property that a company or a person uses in carrying on a business. Capital also means; national or individual wealth as produced by industry and available for reinvestment in the production of goods.
Destroy or destroying means: 1. to break to pieces; make useless; spoil; ruin: 2. to put and end to; do away with. Destroy means: to make useless by breaking to pieces, taking apart, killing, or in any other of many ways.
When non-producers and counter-producers take money without an exchange for it they cause the value, energy, wealth and power in money to be less. Money loses purchasing power when non-producers and counter-producers take it without an exchange, of an equal production value, for the money. Rewarding non-producers and counter-producers causes money to have less value and energy per money unit; they spoil and ruin the value and energy in money. When Banks expand the money supply, they cause money to have less value and energy per money unit. They spoil and ruin the value and energy money possesses.
The Capital Destroying Economic system is predominantly being used, today, on planet earth. This system of Economics causes wild fluctuations between prosperity, recessions and depressions in the field of Economics. Much confusion is caused when attempting to produce prosperity using Capital Destroying Economics. It is a covertly destructive and chaotic system of economics. Anytime prosperity is achieved, the Capital Destroying Economic system eventually goes into a self-destruct mode and collapses the economic prosperity.
This economic collapse is brought about by allowing non-producers and counter-producers into the Marketing system. It is caused by allowing non-producers and counter-producers into the Money Supply. This economic collapse is caused by believing we should allow rich and powerful people to take money without an exchange or not enough exchange for it. An economic collapse is also brought about by believing we need people in the emotional states of chronic anger, hostility and covert hostility running our Companies, Corporations and Political Systems. On the Planet today, people of the emotional states of chronic anger, hostility and covert hostility are mistaken for sane and able people. After all, they appear to “know,” with such “force and/or smoothness!” They appear to know what they are doing and they appear to be “right!”
People in the emotional states of chronic anger, hostility and covert hostility are destructive. They, because of their negative emotional state, are non-producers and counter-producers. Their product is the destruction of the companies they work for and the countries they run politically. They are destroyers of Capital! They hire and promote people of their own emotional state; chronic anger, hostility and covert hostility. The companies, corporations and nations that do prosper, prosper despite the counter-efforts of the leaders in the emotional states of chronic anger, hostility and covert hostility.
They prosper because they have a few Super Producers working in key positions in the Organizations. These Super Producers make production happen despite anything. They are very able individuals; they don’t let the destructive leaders destroy the Organization. They produce and produce and find ways to get around the counter-efforts of the destructive non-producing and counter-producing leaders. Usually they get promoted to a certain level and don’t get promoted any farther even though they carry the Organization on their backs. The destructive non-producers and counter-producers leading the Organizations; believe it is leading by anger and hostility that is causing the success of the Organization. When the Super Producers leave the Organization, the Organization collapses. The destructive non-producing and counter-producing leaders can’t understand what caused the collapse. They are usually clueless because they live off the back of the Super Producer. They are unaware the Super Producer was the key to the organizations success. The destructive non-producers and counter-producers have their attention on destructive activities. They don’t notice constructive activities in progress.
You can spot the chronically angry, hostile and covertly hostile person (leader or worker) by observing how they communicate and by what they do in their activities. They communicate in general terms. They are very often out sequence and non-sequitur in their discussions. They can be very literal in their interpretation of a piece of communication. They can be found involved in excessive alcohol and drug use. They can be found to be involved in unusual sex practices, such as with prostitutes and with many partners. The Producer and Super Producer will overlook and compensate for the faults of the chronically destructive leader and worker. Meanwhile the company, corporation or nation suffers and follows an economic decline as money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power is destroyed. The destructive leaders destroy prosperity.
In many Organizations on Planet Earth; when you find the Organization prosperous, you will find a few Super Producers holding it up despite all the counter-efforts of the destructive leaders and workers in the Organization. In many Organizations on Planet Earth you will find a Super Producing Leader maintaining a high prosperity level despite the counter-efforts of some destructive non-producing and counter-producing workers inside the Organization.
Steve Jobs is an example of a Super Producing Leader. The Board of Directors of Apple fired him. The company almost died. He came back and brought it back to prosperity. When you find an Organization being led by Super Producers, the Organization is usually doing very well. The trick is to get all positions in an Organization filled with Producers or Super Producers.
Over many, many years, Capital Destroying Economics has brought about much suffering and hardship for many people, organizations, families, societies and Nations. Capital Destroying Economics in its basic form rewards non-production and counter-produces. It provides for the concentration of wealth along with the power derived from wealth to be placed into the hands of a small group of non-producers and counter-producers. These non-producers and counter-producers have not created products that can be exchanged on the Open Market for the wealth.
Capital Destroying Economics provides for the transference of wealth, created by the Producers and Super Producers in an Organization. The wealth is transferred from the Producers and Super Producers into the hands of the chronically destructive leaders of an Organization. Wealth is also transferred from the Producers and Super Producers into the hands of all other non-producers and counter-producers existing in an Organization.
The concentration of Capital into the hands of a few non-producers and counter-producers has given them tremendous power. They have used this power to take over the political system. With these political systems, Communism, Fascism, Right Wingism and even Left Wingism, they establish laws that create a legal structure they use to funnel much of the Capital created by Producers into their hands.
Production is the action of doing and converting energy into a product. Marketing is the action of exchanging products for products among Producers. This is basic Marketing; exchanging products for products. Barter is exchanging products for products. In more advanced Marketing, Products are exchanged for money units. When products are exchanged for money units, money units are being used as a medium to transport value from the product. We take this one step further; we say money is also a symbol in which the energy generated to create products is transported to the money unit during Marketing.
The energy used to create the products continues to flow in a society as long as products are “always” exchanged for money units. More and more energy is being created and added to the Open Market. As this energy level grows we see money velocity increase. This increase in money velocity means money is changing hands more rapidly in the society. This energy can be felt when a society achieves prosperity. The individuals and the society are much more alive and vibrant. Non-producing and counter-producing Capital destroyers don’t like this high energy level. Producers love this high energy level, they revel in it!
When money is taken from the Market with no exchange in production, energy is being removed from the Market. When this energy is removed from the Market it gets destroyed disappears or vanishes. The money units, that are the symbols for this energy, lose value. This is where money (Capital) gets destroyed. Money velocity slows. Money value and the amount of energy in each money unit decreases. A recession starts, if ever so slightly. With the out-exchange increasing, more and more money value or money energy (Capital) gets destroyed. Money loses value and energy causing money velocity to slow. Money value and energy, as Capital, is being destroyed. All other forms of Capital start to lose value. What we are describing here is a state of Capital Destruction.
Banks expanding the money supply, speculators who exchange nothing for the huge sums of money they take are huge destroyers of Capital. Excessive military spending and wars are huge destroyers of Capital. Any out-exchange activity is a destroyer of Capital. Monopolies are destroyers of Capital. Many of the most ardent advocators of Capitalism practice Capital Destroying Economics. They are engaged, in a big way, in the destruction of Capital.
You ask, “Why is Capital Destroying Economics so destructive?” Capital Destroying Economics destroys prosperity, it eats up wealth and Capital, it consumes prosperity until a society literally dies and if it doesn’t totally die out it causes tremendous hardship and suffering.
Examples of Capital Destroying Economics at work can be found around the world and throughout history. Almost all wars are the result of Capital Destroying Economics at work. The depressed conditions of Third World Nations are traced to practices of Capital Destroying Economics. The current Great Recession of 2008 is the result of Capital Destroying Economics being practiced. Communism is a Capital Destroying Economic System developed as a solution to past practices of Capital Destroying Economics. Communism came into existence as an answer to Capital Destroying Capitalism. Desperate people under the rule of the Capital Destroying class of Capitalism agreed to accept Communism. They had two choices, death or Communism. They chose Communism which wasn’t any better than Capital Destroying Capitalism. They are still mired in a Capital Destroying Economic system. Communism is a Capital Destroying Economic System. They went from one Capital Destroying Economic System into another Capital Destroying Economic System.
Now that we have seen the consequences of Capital Destroying Economics we can see why we need to insist on working toward a pure Capital Producing Economic System. It is self evident that Capital Destroying Economics slows money velocity and destroys Capital. It also is self evident that Capital Producing Economics, Producer Rewarded Open Market Economics, increases money velocity, increases the value and energy in Capital and money and leads to abundant prosperity.
Producer Rewarded Open Market Economics
The Science of Economics
By: RP Obrigewitsch
March 13, 2012
Revised November 17, 2113
We are talking about money velocity here. We are talking about why money velocity slows and why it speeds up. Money velocity is the flow of energy. It flows throughout a society. Money is a symbol that represents production value, production energy and production power. It also represents wealth and capital. In this article we will look at money as a “symbol of production energy.” Production energy is the prosperity energy for an individual, family, organization, society, nation and mankind. In a society, money velocity increases and decreases depending on the production level of the society. Money velocity also depends on the Producers pay or reward for their production. When rewarded production increases, money velocity increases. When production decreases, money velocity decreases. When production increases and the Producer is not rewarded for creating the production, money velocity decreases. When rewarding non-producers increases, money velocity decreases. Money velocity is the rate at which money changes hands in a society. Money velocity is the rate at which money energy flows through a society. The faster the rate of money energy flow, the more prosperity there is in a society.
- AXIOM 151: Money velocity is the rate at which money changes hands while being exchanged on the Open Market for products (commodities, trades, goods and services.)
- AXIOM 151.1: As the flow of money energy increases through the hands of the people in the society when buying and selling products (commodities, trades, goods and services), their affluence level increases.
- AXIOM 152: Increased production efficiency increases money velocity.
Early in the research and writing of Producer Rewarded Open Market Economics there has been much attention placed on the rewarded wealthy non-producers and counter-producers. There has been much attention placed on the catastrophes caused by rewarding wealthy and powerful non-producers and counter-producers. The wealthy and powerful non-producers and counter-produces cause great destruction. However, all forms of rewarding non-production and counter-production harm individuals, families, organizations, societies, nations, mankind and environments. As we move into the future we will work on perfecting the Producer Rewarded Open Market Economic System. Producers will become more aware of the consequences of rewarding all non-producers and counter-producers. This awareness will allow us to prevent non-producers and counter-producers from taking money without an exchange for it. The exchange must be in self-created products. We will work at perfecting the Producer Rewarded Open Market Economic System. We will work with the purpose of having a tremendous prosperity potential for all individuals, families, organizations, societies, nations, mankind and environments.
Other than natural and “God” given causes, the only reason why money velocity slows down and societies find themselves in recessions, depressions and chronic depressions stems from and only from rewarding non-producers and counter-producers. This is the action of giving money to non-producers and counter-producers who place no production or not enough production on the Open Market in exchange for the money. The action of rewarding non-producers and counter-producers is giving them money energy with no exchange for it. This is allowing them to take money with no or not enough production on the Open Market in exchange for this money energy. The action of placing money energy into the hands of non-producers and counter-producers brings about the destruction of money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power. This destruction of money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power slows money and energy velocity rates in a society. Recessions and depressions expand and grow deeper as rates of money and energy velocity slow down.
This type of economic practice is classified as Capital Destroying Economics. Capital Destroying Capitalism is in this classification. Capital Destroying Capitalism is the destructive part of Capitalism. Capital Destroying Capitalism is in the classification of Capital Destroying Economics.
Remember there are two classifications of Capitalism. They are the prosperity creating types and the prosperity destroying types. They are Capital Producing Capitalism and Capital Destroying Capitalism. The Prosperity creating types are classified as Capital Producing Economics. They are Producer Rewarded Open Market Economics and Capital Producing Capitalism.
The prosperity destroying types are classified under Capital Destroying Economics. They are Capital Destroying Capitalism, Communism and Fascism. The reason the name Capital Destroying Economics was given was because rewarding non-production and counter-production literally destroys money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power. This destruction brings about the destruction of Producing individuals, families, societies, nations, mankind and environments.
On inspection we find Communism, Fascism as well in the destructive classification of Capital Destroying Economics.
This destructive classification of Capitalism, where wealth is concentrated with its power and influence into the hands of a few non-producers and counter-producers, causes great hardship and suffering.
Communism and Fascism are also destructive systems of economics. These two systems also concentrate wealth with its power and influence into the hands of a few non-producers and counter-producers. This activity also leads to great hardships and suffering.
What do these three destructive economic systems; Capital Destroying Capitalism, Communism and Fascism; have in common? The have a money velocity that is flowing very slowly. Their citizens are living under great hardship and suffering. They are mired in prolonged economic depressions.
We find, in the above three systems, the few powerful non-producers and counter-producers tend to be hiding. The money, energy and power are concentrated into their hands. They use it to have a tremendous influence on their societies and nations. They use it to set up systems where they can take more money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power without exchanging production for it. We find these rewarded non-producers and counter-producers hiding. They hide, grab and hold onto the money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power. They horde and stop the flow of money energy. They grab and hold onto material objects (Materialism.) They become the money and objects they worship. They become their expensive cars, boats, airplanes, houses and other material objects. It could be said, “These rewarded non-producers and counter-producers are hiding in or as their objects!” They hide grab and hold. Their purpose is to stop the flow of money energy. They have a tremendous negative effect on money velocity and prosperity in their societies.
These rewarded non-producers and counter-producers are hard to spot. They hide, grab and hold onto money energy, production energy and prosperity energy. They seldom stand up and admit their true purpose. Instead they will hide behind other issues such as a balanced budget, abortion, gay rights and “create” enemies of the state to take attention off their real purpose. They will argue issues such as abortion and gay rights. When they get to power they will not handle these issues when they have the power to do so. When in political power they will assert their hidden purpose. Their hidden purpose is to concentrate more money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power into their hands. They grab and hold more money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power. They will use the enemies they “create” to promote war. War is another means for the non-producers and counter-producers to transfer more money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power into their hands. They steal the prosperity energy and production energy from the Producers. They steal the value, energy, wealth, capital and power from the Producers.
We find long recessions and depressions. We find a slowed money velocity. This is caused by moving wealth from Producers. The wealth is placed into the hands of a few powerful non-producers and counter-producers who have not created it.
There are tools to determine: What is production and what is non-production? What is counter-production? Who are the Producers? Who are the non-producers? Who are the counter-producers? There are tools to determine whether we are Capital Producers or Capital Destroyers.
What is a Product?
A commodity, trade, good or a service is classified as a Product when it:
A. is marketed on The Open Market (open to all on equal terms,)
B. is needed and wanted and
C. does not harm the prosperity to the individual, family, organization, society, mankind, nation and/or environment.
Or it can be more fully explained by saying, “it causes the greatest prosperity to the greatest number of people.” Another way of saying it is, “it causes the least harm to the greatest number of people.”
DEFINITION OF A PRODUCER:
AXIOM 23: A Producer is a person who:
A. Creates a commodity, trade, good or service,
B. The commodity, trade, good or service must be needed and wanted,
C. The commodity, trade, good or service must be marketed on the Open Market (open to all upon equal terms) and
D. It must enhance or should not destroy the prosperity of the individual, family, organization, society, nation, mankind and environments.
AXIOM 24: Producers are the main beams, support structure and back bone of a society and a Nation. The prosperity of a Nation rests upon the backs of the Producers.
There is only one way to achieve optimum money velocity and be a Capital Producer and that is to reward the Producers of production. There are many, many ways to place a drag on money velocity other than natural causes. They all come down to rewarding non-production and counter-production. Non-producers and counter-producers are the destroyers of capital, money, value, energy, wealth and power.
We can use the Technology in Producer Rewarded Open Market Economics to create and expand our prosperity creating economic system on this planet. In the past we have been subject to the grab and hold (hoarders) running our economic systems. This has always slowed money velocity bringing about recessions, depressions and wars. The Producers have always sought to create money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power. The Producers have always sought to increase the money velocity. They have sought ways to make sure everyone who produced received their production value and production energy in exchange for what they have created.
As Producers, we can move forward with confidence, knowing what we are doing is correct and very right! We can confidently move forward producing prosperity, energy, wealth, capital and power for ourselves, families, organizations, societies, nations, mankind and environments.
Producer Rewarded Open Market Economics
The Science of Economics
By: RP Obrigewitsch
March 4, 2012
Revised November 18, 2013
The Free Market today is almost non-existent. It is buried beneath all the destructive schemes, dreamed up by non-producers and counter-producers. They use their destructive schemes to take money without an exchange for it. The Market is there working like it should be working. It is establishing value for commodities, trades, goods and services that get placed on the market. However, the market is covered in a shroud of unethical, immoral, and lawless schemes.
This shroud is composed of monopolies and government sanctioned monopolies. It is also composed of schemes of speculation that involve no production. Government subsidies, welfare for the rich and welfare for the poor are also part of this shroud. This shroud also includes massively over allocated military spending. People who hold positions and do not produce at all or produce less than the money received in pay are a part of this shroud. Other areas covered in this shroud are other massively wasteful government programs, people in power receiving huge amounts of money with no or not enough production in exchange for it; illegal drug trade and excessive unneeded legal drug trade.
The shroud includes individuals in governments. They sit in a position of power, redistributing the money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power away from the Producers. They placing it into the hands of non-producers and counter-producers. Capital Destroying Capitalists, Communism, Fascism, Right Wingism and Left Wingism have as their central thrust to redistribute the money, value, energy, wealth, capital and power of a nation. They place it into the hands of non-producers and counter-producers.
When you study the Market you will see through this shroud and see the Free Market working. It is a Market, after all. “All Markets have supply and demand forces at work establishing the value for all commodities, trades, goods and services on the Market!”
Producer Rewarded Open Market Economics
The Science of Economics
By RP Obrigewitsch
December 4, 2011
Axioms of Economics
Constant Money Supply
Money Velocity and Prosperity
- 1.0 Money Velocity and Prosperity
- 1.1 The Money Velocity Cycle
- 1.2 Capital Producing Economics
- 1.3 Vampire Economics
- 1.4 The Goal of a Society
- 1.5 Production Efficiency
- 1.6 Why Money Velocity Slows
- 1.7 Capital Destroying Economics
- 1.8 Producer, Non-producer or Counter-producer
- 1.9 Razor Thin Path
- 2.0 Stock Market
Open Market Economics
Producer Rewarded Economics
- 1. What is money?
- 1.1 What is a Product?
- 1.2 The Four Basic Laws of Economics
- 1.3 Who are the Producers?
- 1.4 All Producers are Workers
- 1.5 Workers and Producers Create Money
- 1.6 Government Products and Services
- 1.7 Non-productive & Counter-productive Activities
- 1.8 Work, Energy and Money
- 1.9 Production Creates Futures
- 1.95 Producers, Non-producers and Counter-producers
- 2.0 Attention and Money
- 2.01 Attention Vacuum and Producers
- 2.02 Attention Vacuum and Producers
- 2.1 Banks Don’t Create Money
- 2.2 Capitalism Without Rules
- 2.4 True Wealth!
- 2.5 True Wealth! Part 1
- 2.6 True Wealth! Part 2
- 2.7 True Wealth! Part 3
- 3.0 Socialism
- 3.1 Political Economic Systems
- 3.2 Producers, Non-producers and Counter-producers
- 3.3 Overt and Hidden Socialism
- 3.4 Capital Destroying; Capitalism and Socialism
- 3.5 Economics is a Group Activity
- 3.6 Capital Producing Capitalism and Capital Producing Socialism
- 3.7 Private Forms of Socialism
- 3.8 Capitalist Socialist Economics
- 3.9 Government Socialism
- 4.0 Types of Socialism
- 4.1 Interfacing in Groups
- 4.2 Correlated Pay
- 4.3 System of Measuring Production
- 4.4 Systems of Pay
- 4.5 State of Action
- 4.6 Capital Destroying Capitalism
- 4.7 Capital Destroying Socialism
- 4.8 Use of the Word Capital
- 4.9 Producer Rewarded Open Market Economics
- 5.0 Prosperity Thrusts
- 5.1 Pure Capitalism
- 5.2 Right Wing Socialism
- 5.21 Three Types of Capitalism
- 5.3 Left Wing Socialism
- 5.4 Foundation Socialism
- 5.9 Deus ex Machina